Cosmic Powers. The crescent with, or without a star, is an internationally recognized symbol of Islam. It became affiliated with the Muslim world after it was adopted by the Ottoman Empire in the 14th century as their emblem of sovereignty. The origin of the symbol is difficult to ascertain. Most sources believe that those ancient celestial symbols relate to the worship of cosmic powers, like the moon and the stars. In Jerusalem this emblem became prevalent during the 400 years of Ottoman rule in Palestine, until 1917.