Function and Aesthetics. The imposing Wall and Gates of the Old City, were constructed by the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, in the 16th century on the foundations of earlier walls. The Wall, which at its time was a most ambitious architectural and engineering enterprise, is about 4 kilometers long, 15 meters high and 3 meters wide at its base. Seven massive gates from that period are the most dominant elements in wall’s fortress architecture. The four major gates are located in each side of the wall: Jaffa Gate to the west, The Lions or St. Stephen’s Gate to the east, Damascus Gate to the north and Zion Gate to the south. Damascus Gate is of exceptional architectural beauty, presenting an excellent example of fusion between functional and aesthetic merits.